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Dsm history homosexuality in christianity

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Facts About Homosexuality and Mental Health. Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious, legal, and medical underpinnings. Before the High Middle Ages, homosexual acts appear to have been tolerated or ignored by the Christian church throughout Europe. Beginning in the latter twelfth century, however, Dsm history homosexuality in christianity toward homosexuality began to take root, and eventually spread throughout European religious and secular institutions.

Condemnation of homosexual acts and other nonprocreative sexual Dsm history homosexuality in christianity as "unnatural," which received official expression in the writings of Thomas Aquinas and Dsm history homosexuality in christianity, became widespread and has continued through the present day Boswell, Many of the early American colonies, for example, enacted stiff criminal penalties for sodomy, an umbrella term that encompassed a wide variety of sexual acts that were nonprocreative including homosexual behaviorDsm history homosexuality in christianity outside of marriage e.

The statutes often described such conduct only in Latin or with oblique phrases such as "wickedness not to be named". In some places, such as the New Haven colony, male and female homosexual acts were punishable by death e. By the end of the 19th century, medicine and psychiatry were effectively competing with religion and the law for jurisdiction over sexuality.

As a consequence, discourse about homosexuality expanded from the realms of sin and crime to include Dsm history homosexuality in christianity of pathology. This historical shift was generally considered progressive because a sick person was less blameful than a sinner or criminal e.

Even within medicine and psychiatry, however, homosexuality was not universally viewed as a Dsm history homosexuality in christianity. Richard von Krafft-Ebing described it as a degenerative sickness in his Psychopathia Sexualisbut Sigmund Freud and Havelock Ellis both adopted more accepting stances. Early in the twentieth century, Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made outstanding contributions to society Robinson, Sigmund Freud's basic theory of human Dsm history homosexuality in christianity history homosexuality in christianity was different from that of Ellis.

He believed all human beings were innately bisexual, and that they become heterosexual or homosexual as a result of their experiences with parents and others Freud, Nevertheless, Freud agreed with Ellis that a homosexual orientation should not be viewed as a form of pathology.

In Dsm history homosexuality in christianity now-famous letter to an American mother inFreud wrote: Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc.

It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime, and cruelty too Later psychoanalysts did not follow this view, however. Sandor Radorejected Freud's assumption of inherent bisexuality, arguing instead that heterosexuality is natural and that homosexuality is a "reparative" attempt to achieve sexual pleasure when normal heterosexual outlet proves too threatening.

Other analysts later argued Dsm history homosexuality in christianity homosexuality resulted from pathological family relationships during the oedipal period around years of age and claimed that they observed these patterns in their homosexual patients Bieber et al. Charles Socarides speculated that the Dsm history homosexuality in christianity of homosexuality was pre-oedipal and, therefore, even more pathological than had been supposed by earlier analysts for a detailed history, see Lewes, ; for briefer summaries, see Bayer, ; Silverstein, Although psychoanalytic theories of homosexuality once had considerable influence in psychiatry and in the larger culture, they were not subjected to rigorous empirical testing.

First published in , DSM-II...

Instead, they were based on analysts' clinical observations of patients already known by them to be homosexual. This procedure compromises Dsm history homosexuality in christianity validity of the psychoanalytic conclusions in at least two important ways.

Dsm history Dsm history homosexuality in christianity in christianity, the analyst's theoretical orientations, expectations, and personal attitudes are likely to bias her or his observations.

To avoid such bias, scientists take great pains in their studies to ensure that the Dsm history homosexuality in christianity who actually collect the data do not have expectations about how a particular research participant will respond. An example is the "double blind" procedure used in many experiments. Such procedures have not been used in clinical psychoanalytic studies of homosexuality.

Christianity, sex was intended for...

Patients, however, cannot be assumed to be representative of the general population. Just as it would be inappropriate to draw conclusions about all heterosexuals based only on data from heterosexual psychiatric patients, we cannot generalize from observations of homosexual patients to the entire population of gay men and lesbians.

A more tolerant Dsm history homosexuality in christianity toward homosexuality was adopted by researchers from other disciplines.

The good/bad binary is not...

Zoologist and taxonomist Alfred C. A brief introduction to sampling. Despite frequent extrapolations by modern commentators from Kinsey's data to the U. Nevertheless, his work revealed that many more American adults than previously suspected had Dsm history homosexuality in christianity in homosexual behavior or had experienced same-sex fantasies.

This finding cast doubt on the widespread assumption that homosexuality was practiced only by a small number of social misfits.

The 'coming out' of homosexuality...

Other social science researchers also argued against the prevailing negative view of homosexuality. In a review of published scientific studies and archival data, Ford and Beach found that Dsm history homosexuality in christianity behavior was widespread among various nonhuman species and in a large number of human societies. As Dsm history homosexuality in christianity Kinsey, whether this proportion applies to all human societies cannot be known because a nonprobability sample was used.

However, the findings of Ford and Beach demonstrate that Dsm history homosexuality in christianity behavior occurs in many societies and is not always condemned see also Herdt, ; Williams, Although dispassionate scientific research on whether homosexuality should be viewed as an illness was largely absent from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine during the first half of the twentieth century, some researchers remained unconvinced that all homosexual individuals were mentally ill or socially misfit.

Berube reported the results of previously unpublished studies conducted by military physicians and researchers during World War II. These studies challenged the equation of homosexuality with psychopathology, as well as the stereotype that homosexual recruits could not be good soldiers. A common conclusion in their wartime studies was that, in the words of Maj. Dsm history homosexuality in christianity, who studied fifty-three white and seven black Dsm history homosexuality in christianity at Camp Haan, Dsm history homosexuality in christianity, "overt homosexuality occurs in a heterogeneous group of individuals.

Clements Fry, director of the Yale University student clinic, and Edna Rostow, a social worker, who together studied the Dsm history homosexuality Dsm history homosexuality in christianity christianity records of servicemen, discovered that there was no evidence to support the common belief that "homosexuality is uniformly correlated with specific personality traits" and concluded that generalizations about the homosexual personality "are not yet reliable.

Sometimes to their amazement, Dsm history homosexuality in christianity described what they called the "well-adjusted homosexuals" who, in [William] Menninger's words, "concealed their homosexuality effectively and, at the same time, made creditable records for themselves in the Dsm history homosexuality in christianity. Todaya large body of published empirical research clearly refutes the notion that homosexuality per se is indicative of or correlated Dsm history homosexuality in christianity psychopathology.

One of the first and most famous published studies in this area was conducted by psychologist Evelyn Hooker. Hooker's study was innovative in several important respects. First, rather than simply accepting the predominant view of homosexuality as pathology, she posed the question of whether homosexuals and heterosexuals differed in their psychological adjustment. Second, rather than Dsm history homosexuality in christianity psychiatric patients, she Dsm history homosexuality in christianity a sample of homosexual men who were functioning normally in society.

Third, she employed a procedure that asked experts to rate the adjustment of men without prior knowledge of their sexual orientation. This method addressed an important source Dsm history homosexuality in christianity bias that had vitiated so many previous studies of homosexuality. The two groups were matched for age, IQ, and education. None of the men were in therapy at the time of the study. Unaware of each subject's sexual orientation, two independent Rorschach experts evaluated the men's overall adjustment using a 5-point scale.

They classified two-thirds of the heterosexuals and two-thirds of the homosexuals in the three highest categories of adjustment. When asked to identify which Rorschach protocols were obtained from homosexuals, the experts could not distinguish respondents' sexual orientation at a level better than chance. As with the Rorschach responses, the adjustment ratings of the homosexuals and heterosexuals did not differ significantly.

Hooker concluded from her data that homosexuality is not a clinical entity and that homosexuality is not inherently associated with psychopathology. Hooker's findings have since been replicated by many other investigators using a variety of research methods. Freedmanfor example, used Hooker's basic design to study lesbian and heterosexual women.

Instead of projective tests, he administered objectively-scored personality tests to the Dsm history homosexuality in christianity. His conclusions were similar to those of Hooker. Although some investigations published since Hooker's study have claimed to support the view of homosexuality as pathological, they Dsm history homosexuality in christianity been methodologically weak. Many used only clinical or incarcerated Dsm history homosexuality Dsm history homosexuality in christianity christianity, for example, from which generalizations to the population at large are not possible.

Some studies found differences Dsm history homosexuality in christianity homosexual and heterosexual respondents, and then assumed that those differences indicated pathology in the homosexuals. For example, heterosexual and homosexual respondents might report different kinds of childhood experiences or family relationships. It would then be assumed that the patterns reported by the Dsm history homosexuality in christianity indicated pathology, even though there were no differences in psychological functioning between the two groups.

The weight of evidence. In a review of published studies comparing homosexual and heterosexual samples on psychological tests, Gonsiorek found that, Dsm history homosexuality in christianity some differences have been observed in test results between homosexuals and heterosexuals, both groups consistently score within the normal Dsm history homosexuality in christianity. Gonsiorek concluded that "Homosexuality in and of itself is unrelated to psychological disturbance or maladjustment.

Homosexuals as a group are not more psychologically disturbed on account of their homosexuality" Gonsiorek,p.

The view of homosexuality as...

Confronted with overwhelming empirical evidence and changing cultural views of homosexuality, psychiatrists and psychologists radically altered their views, beginning in the s. Removal from the DSM. Inthe weight of empirical data, coupled with changing social norms and the development of a politically active gay community in the United States, led the Board of Directors of the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM.

Some psychiatrists who fiercely opposed their action subsequently circulated a petition calling for a vote on the issue by the Association's membership. That vote was held inand the Board's decision was ratified. Subsequently, a new diagnosis, ego-dystonic homosexualitywas created for the DSM's third edition in Ego dystonic homosexuality was indicated by: This new diagnostic category, however, was criticized by mental health professionals on numerous grounds.

Others questioned the appropriateness of having a separate diagnosis that described the content of an individual's dysphoria. They argued that the psychological problems related to ego-dystonic Dsm history homosexuality in christianity could be treated as well by other general diagnostic categories, and that the existence of the diagnosis perpetuated antigay stigma.

Moreover, widespread prejudice against homosexuality in the United States meant that Dsm history homosexuality in christianity people who are homosexual go through an initial phase in which their homosexuality could be considered ego dystonic. According to the American Psychiatric Association"Fears and misunderstandings about homosexuality are widespread The only vestige of ego dystonic homosexuality in the revised DSM-III occurred under Sexual Disorders Not Otherwise Specified, which included persistent and marked distress about one's sexual orientation American Psychiatric Association, ; see Bayer,for an account Dsm history homosexuality in christianity the events leading up to the and decisions.

Text of APA Dsm history homosexuality in christianity. The American Dsm history homosexuality in christianity Association APA promptly endorsed the psychiatrists' actions, and has since worked intensively to eradicate the stigma historically associated with a homosexual orientation APA, ; Some psychologists and psychiatrists still hold negative personal attitudes toward homosexuality.

However, empirical evidence and professional norms do not support the idea that homosexuality is a form of mental illness or is inherently linked to psychopathology. The foregoing should not be construed as an argument that sexual minority individuals are free from mental illness and psychological distress. Indeed, given the stresses created by sexual stigma and prejudice, it would be surprising if some of them did not manifest psychological problems Meyer, Unfortunately, because of the way they were originally designed, most of these studies do not yield information about whether and to Dsm history homosexuality in christianity extent such risks might be greater for various subgroups within the sexual minority population e.

In future research, it will be important to compare Dsm history homosexuality in christianity sexual minority groups in order to understand how so many individuals withstand the stresses imposed by sexual prejudice, and to identify effective strategies for treating those with psychological problems.

Instead, he chose to emphasize sexual behavior and fantasy.

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