Census Bureau estimated in that there were 29, Texans of Lebanese and Syrian ancestry. Names of well-known Lebanese- and Syrian-Texans appear in many fields. They include medicine Dr. Michael DeBakey, the heart surgeon ; business the Haggar and Farah families, clothing manufacturers ; and law and politics the Kazens of Laredo and the Jamails of And in the arts there is actor F. Their influence can be seen across the state from Houston, where the Antone family has a food
Dating traditions for different cultures in texas business and where names like Halbouty and Haddad are big in oil, to El Paso, home of the Azar Nut Company.
Lebanese and Syrian families began coming to Texas around from what were then Middle Eastern provinces within the Ottoman Turkish Empire. But the first Arabic-speaking individuals from that Dating traditions for different cultures in texas already had arrived in Texas in as camel tenders. Hadji Ali was a young man from Syria who, along with a few Turks and Greeks, arrived in May in Indianola with a shipload of camels.
The camels, part of an experiment by
Dating traditions for different cultures in texas U. Army, were used for a few years before the Civil War as pack animals in caravans that linked the military forts on the western frontier. Hadji Ali, a Muslim convert, was the son of a Syrian father and Greek mother.
After the job with the Army ended, he mined for gold and silver in the desert Southwest, Dating traditions for different cultures in texas camels Dating traditions for different cultures in texas part of his work. He died in in Arizona.
Dating traditions for different cultures in texas, another Syrian who worked in the Army camel experiment, moved on to Sonora, Mexico. He taught Arabic to American missionaries. Two of his sons remained in Austin until About that same year, Cater Joseph Cater, a teacher at the Presbyterian school in Roumieh, Lebanon, began sending his children to Austin.
In Austin, the family name was changed to Joseph. The oldest son eventually opened a confectionary and other sons opened retail stores there. Census Bureau referred to the Ottoman Empire. Another persons had parents born there.
The vast majority of them were from the provinces then called Mount Lebanon and Greater Syria. However, most of the immigrants did not arrive directly, but instead worked briefly in other states before settling in Texas.
Almost all of the early immigrants were Christians: Antiochian Orthodox, Maronite Catholic and Greek Catholic called Melkitesall of whom trace their roots to the Church of Antioch of the first century. There were also some Protestants, mostly members of the Presbyterian Church, which had established schools in Lebanon. Aftersome of the immigrants from Lebanon and Syria were Muslims who were fleeing the unsettled situation in the Middle East. However, today the majority of Texans from these two Arabic-speaking countries remains Christian.
In the 19th century, Christians in the Dating traditions for different cultures in texas empire were tolerated but had to pay extra taxes and faced some professional restrictions. The Maronite Christians are unique to Lebanon.
The name comes from a priest named Maron who died in After conflicts within the Church of Antioch, his followers took refuge on Mount Lebanon. Because Dating traditions for different cultures in texas their isolation, these Maronites were unknown to the West until the Crusaders encountered them in the 12th century.
Dating traditions for different cultures in texas Catholics are in union with the pope but maintain their own liturgy and hierarchy. Many of the Maronite Catholic Lebanese who came to Texas assimilated into the Roman Catholic parishes because none of their own clergy was here. Only in the late
Dating traditions for different cultures in texas century did Maronite parishes become established the urban areas of Dallas, Houston, Austin and El Paso.
The exception was the creation in of St. George Maronite Church in San Antonio. The Antiochian Orthodox, on the other hand, began to establish churches in Texas much earlier.
Constantine and Helen Church was founded in mainly by Serbians and Greeks, but it also had a few Syrians among the parishioners. The first Antiochian Orthodox church, St.
In smaller Texas cities, some of the immigrants joined Episcopalian, Methodist or other Protestant churches. Although the Christian Dating traditions for different cultures in texas within a Muslim empire was one catalyst for emigration to the West, the principal reason was the lack of economic opportunity in the old societies.
Thus, many of the first Lebanese and Syrians in Texas began making their livelihood here as itinerant peddlers and traversed the state from Canadian in the Panhandle to Del Rio on the Rio Grande and Tyler in East Texas. These enterprising and adaptable merchants, who have also been described as clannish, soon had relatives joining them to create the first Lebanese and Syrian communities within Texas cities. The second Dating traditions for different cultures in texas third generations then began moving into the fields of law, education and oil exploration.
The close-knit communities, mostly in urban areas, began to form social and benevolent organizations.
The Southern Federation was founded in and held its first convention in Beaumont in Besides serving to tie together all the various clubs in each city, the federation began to help the most recent immigrants from Syria and Lebanon and to provide scholarships to young people of the
Dating traditions for different cultures in texas community.
Also, the clubs provided a way to celebrate and to preserve the traditional food, dances and customs of the Syrians and Lebanese.
Most of the clubs have annual gatherings called sahrias where delicacies are served, including Arabic bread, tahini a paste made of sesame seedsbaklava pastries, and kibbe, a kind of meatloaf. The traditional circle dance, dabke, is also part of the festivities.
Music is provided by small bands made up of a lute, called an oud, a hand drum, or derbukki, Dating traditions for different cultures in texas the tambourine. These same customs of music, dance and food are celebrated with other Texans at annual festivals put on by community churches. Published by tsha distributed in partnership with the university Dating traditions for different cultures in texas texas at austin.