The Fair Housing Act of — whose 50th anniversary we marked last week — seemed a monumental achievement at the time, a capstone the historic measures of the s that sought to transform African american speed hookup in st.
louis relations in America. But something central has been widely overlooked. Fair-housing laws did bring about substantial change in a significant number of American cities.
And a large body of careful research shows that in these areas, integration has had remarkable effects in racial gaps. A score of corresponds to complete segregation, and 0 corresponds African american speed hookup in st. louis complete integration.
Louis — have indices above 75 or even But a significant number of other metro areas African american speed hookup in st. louis much better: Compelling evidence shows that lower housing segregation itself is a prime driver of the narrowing racial gaps. On nearly every dimension, social and economic conditions are far better for African Americans in moderate- versus high-segregation cities, in San Diego rather than, say, St.
The benefits of lower segregation especially accrue to low- and moderate-income blacks. Even age-adjusted death rates differ: To be sure, significant gaps remain in more integrated areas. It's also true that, to
African american speed hookup in st.
louis degree, better black outcomes are due to who is migrating, and once better outcomes mark a neighborhood, that begets lower segregation.
But compelling evidence shows that lower housing segregation itself is a prime driver of the narrowing racial gaps. Metropolitan housing integration produces greater —
African american speed hookup in st. louis lasting — school integration; it greatly reduces the concentration of poverty in black communities; it puts blacks closer to job opportunities. It is powerfully associated with lower rates of violent crime, a smaller test-score gap between black and white students, and better health outcomes.
Of course, all these developments reinforce one another, which is why the racial gaps in integrated areas continue to narrow over time. Lowering city segregation levels by even 15 or 20 points on a point scale has strong effects in
African american speed hookup in st.
louis american speed hookup in st. louis black-white inequality. It reduces racial tensions and produces a broader sense of community. White attitudes in America on matters of race, as measured regularly by the University of Chicago's General Social Survey, have registered broad increases African american speed hookup in st.
louis tolerance in the last 40 years. But the gains have been especially striking in metro areas with lower segregation. This kind of change is not only profound in its effects, it's durable. The Fair Housing Act targeted discrimination. It made real estate professionals liable to legal action if they denied equal access to racial minorities. Activists fumed because the main enforcement agency — the Department of Housing and Urban Development — was ineffective, but the unsung hero of fair housing was a Department of Justice lawyer named Frank Schwelb, who spearheaded an energetic, national enforcement strategy at the agency in the s.
In the 10 years after the act's passage, an African American's likelihood of being denied housing in white areas fell by more than two-thirds. Black mobility increased sharply, but in some metropolitan areas, it mostly affected white neighborhoods very close to existing black enclaves. Even if whites did not flee and they fled less often than is commonly supposedthe rapid and sustained increase in black demand tended to tip these neighborhoods into resegregation.
The net result was more housing for blacks, but no decrease in overall segregation. The decrease came where black moves were dispersed across many white neighborhoods and where formerly majority-black enclaves attracted some white and Latino migrants a precursor of contemporary gentrification. Data show that once a "critical mass" of stably integrated African american speed hookup in st. louis existed, they attracted more residents of all races who liked integration, and the cycle toward lasting desegregation was underway.
African american speed hookup in st. louis fair-housing battles often focus on where to place subsidized housing, or on quicker processing of discrimination complaints — non-trivial matters but ones that won't change broad segregation patterns.
A new generation of activism should concentrate on nudging mobility patterns. One way to do it is through housing trusts in neighborhoods that are beginning to integrate or to gentrify — investing in buildings not to displace tenants or redevelop them but its opposite — to keep rents low and to encourage newcomers.
Another method is intensive, free housing counseling to introduce blacks to majority-white neighborhoods and vice versa. Above all, a greater awareness of the transformative potential of metropolitan housing integration could African american speed hookup in st.
louis turn our generalized desire for racial justice into concrete change. The Past and Future of Fair Housing. Follow the Opinion section on Twitter latimesopinion and Facebook. You are now following this newsletter. Be the first to comment Hide Comments.
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