Sexually transmitted diseases STDs represent a major public health problem in the world and the advent and increase of human immunodeficiency virus infection during the last decade has highlighted the importance of infections spread by the sexual route. World Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country Organization estimates that the global incidence in of new cases of selected curable STDs, which are gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, syphilis and trichomoniasis, was million.
Control programs for STDs must prevent the acquisition of STDs, their complications and sequelae and interrupt and reduce transmission. Sexually transmitted diseases STDs are a major health problem in the world. These diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection, represent some of the most complex ones in modern medicine. STDs exhibit a higher incidence and prevalence, an alarming rate of antimicrobial resistance, a higher rate of serious complications and interaction with HIV infection in developing countries.
Failure to diagnose and treat traditional infections, such as gonorrhea, chlamydial infections and syphilis which can have deleterious effects during pregnancy and on the newborn, is also common in these countries. Other complications especially in
Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility and cervical cancer, are large health and social problems.
In most developing countries, the incidence and prevalence of STDs may be 20 times higher than those in countries . Point-prevalence studies Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country employed most widely in the developing world.
The developing world is a heterogeneous community, but it has at least one common feature, that the STDs Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country this community are expected to occur among those between 20 and 40 years of age, in contrast to the population of developed countries.
The consequence of this is not only a higher absolute incidence of STDs in the developing countries but also a potentially worsening situation in the future [1—3]. It estimates an annual total of million of new STD infections in adults.
The number of new cases is 12 million for syphilis, 62 million for gonorrhea, 89 million for chlamydial infections and million for trichomoniasis excluding genital papilloma virus infection which WHO itself had previously estimated at 30 million new cases per year and herpetic infection at 20 million Table 1.
Genital ulcers show a relatively higher frequency among STDs, and chancroid followed by syphilis is a major cause of genital ulcers in the developing countries. WHO projections for HIV infection show a current range of 15—20 million cumulative infections worldwide and it Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country projected that cumulative worldwide totals of HIV infections will reach 30—40 Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country by the year .
There was a significant decline in the incidence of curable STDs such as syphilis and gonorrhea in developed countries during — . These infections were either at a negligible rate in general or particularly absent in some localities in these countries.
In developing countries in contrast, for example in the part of Europe and especially in the recently independent states of the former USSR, the situation was quite different. There has been an extremely rapid rise in the notification of syphilis in the Russian Federation reaching 86 per in and in with a fold increase from to
Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country contrast to the low prevalence of HIV infection in some developing
Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country, such Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country those in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, the numbers of reported HIV cases were considerably high in Poland and Ukraine in — .
The prevalence of common STDs in developing countries is very high in particular risk groups. Although this infection is a common STD in many developing countries, its prevalence rate very small in the developed world. The prevalence rates of this infection among CSWs were not significantly different from those in pregnant women. Women and men attending STD clinics constitute another high risk group and levels of infection are considerably high as should be expected.
Syphilis is a treatable disease which can be diagnosed with a very simple test, the fact that it is still prevalent in many developing countries is unacceptable .
Most developing countries have also undertaken HIV seroprevalence studies, particularly CSWs, intravenous drug users and pregnant women. High levels of infection in these groups are found in most sub-Saharan African and South-East Asian countries.
Sexually active female adolescents 1. In contrast in adolescents in the USA, the prevalence of C. For syphilis the incidence rate is 1. The global problem of is influenced by a number of factors: Pregnant women, sex workers, recruits, STD clinic attenders and prisoners are often studied populations. However, genital Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country infections caused by C.
Almost all case-finding activities on STDs have centred around tertiary health care centers such as university hospitals in metropolitan areas. According to these results, a total of STDs were diagnosed in patients. Among 81 patients, more than one existed.
No STD was found in persons. The frequently encountered diseases in female Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country were candidial and Gardnerella vaginalis vaginitis.
The most frequently encountered disease in male patients was syphilis. This disease was the fourth most common infection among females. In males, the incidence of non-gonococcal urethritis followed syphilis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was found more frequently than C.
Anti-HIV antibody was
Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country positive only in two male patients living abroad. In another study, syphilis prevalence among CSWs was reported to be 8— This prevalence was found to be The prevalence of C. the breakdown of communist rule in Eastern European countries in the s and the subsequent disruption in socioeconomic conditions, there have been substantial population shifts across national borders.
Due to recent changes in social migration, the number of unregistered CSWs in Turkey has increased . However, studies on STDs are very among these groups. Further surveys for this population are needed to determine the prevalence of STDs. The prevalence of HIV seropositivity showed that it was very low in Turkey.
According to the Ministry of Health of Turkey, a total of seropositive cases were reported from until December 31,  ; of these cases were AIDS patients. When we evaluated the seropositivity prevalence according to risk groups, homosexual and bisexual cases were 68, intravenous drug users 84, hemophiliac cases 14, transfusion recipients 34, heterosexual casesin utero transmission 7 and unknown cases The seropositivity distribution for gender was determined as for men and for women.
In the same Department, a total of sera were studied for HIV infection, out of these sera were Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country . In developing countries, the most important problem is insufficient sexual education. In Turkey as a model among developing countries, sex and STDs were taboo until the last few decades.
However, there are still some cultural values
Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country this country . Prostitution, free sex and homosexuality are usually rejected by society. On the other hand, these are very common in Turkey, especially in metropolitan areas.
Actually the above-mentioned Sexually transmitted diseases statistics by country values are still problems in most developing countries [23—26]. In order to manage these national control programs, consisting of intervention strategies and support components, are developed and implemented. These interventions in developing countries include:.
Screening for HIV, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia in high risk groups known to have a high prevalence of infection. The control programs for STDs in developing countries play an important role in the prevention of these diseases. The control programs in the prevention of STDs in these countries should include:. In conclusion, in developing countries, in contrast to developed ones, more funds for STD screening, diagnosis, treatment and of course education are needed.
These should include the right combination of medical, behavioral and social interventions. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. This article was originally published in. Abstract Sexually transmitted STDs represent a major public health problem in the world and the advent and increase of human immunodeficiency virus infection during the last decade has highlighted the importance of infections spread by the sexual route. Sexually transmitted diseaseGonorrheaChlamydial infectionSyphilisHuman immunodeficiency virus.
Epidemiology and control of sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries. The role of epidemiology and surveillance systems in the control of sexually transmitted diseases. Current and future dimensions of the problem in the Third World. Challenges for international health policy, programs and research. Health sector priorities review. HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases.
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