Young-Earth Creationist 'Dating' of a Mt. Because radiometric dating utterly refutes biblical interpretations, young-Earth creationists YECs are desperate to undermine the reality of these methods. As part of their efforts, YEC Dr. Austin's conclusions on this project are summarized at the ICR website. The 'research' efforts of Austin and his colleagues and their 'expertise' in radiometric dating have been widely criticized, including by Joe Meert also hereKaren Bartelt and company and myself at No Answers in Genesis and in my web debate with Dr.
Austin rarely responds to his critics. Helens Really a Million Years Old? Although Swenson accompanied Austin on a trip to Mt. Helens, there is no indication from his writings that Swenson is familiar with igneous petrology, geochronology or even geology in general.
Considering that the half-life of potassium 40K is fairly long 1, million years, McDougall and Harrison,p. Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale few thousand years are not enough time for 40Ar to accumulate in a sample at high enough concentrations to be detected and quantified. Furthermore, many geochronology laboratories do not have the expensive state-of-the-art equipment to accurately measure argon in samples that are only a few million years old.
Specifically, the laboratory personnel that performed the K-Ar dating for Austin et al. With less advanced equipment, 'memory effects' can be a problem with very Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale samples Dalrymple,p. That is, very tiny amounts of argon contaminants from previous analyses may remain within the equipment, which precludes accurate dates for very young samples.
For older samples, which contain more 40Ar, the contamination is diluted and has insignificant effects. Considering the statements at the Geochron website and the lowest age limitations of the K-Ar method, why did Austin submit a recently erupted Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale to this laboratory and expect a reliable answer???
Contrary to Swenson's uninformed claim that ' Dr Austin carefully designed the research to counter all possible objections', Austin clearly demonstrated his inexperience in geochronology when he wasted a lot of money using the K-Ar method on the wrong type of samples. Austin's results on the Mt. Helens dacite, which are also listed by Swensonare shown in the following table: Notice that only one of Austin's dates is above the lower dating limit of approximately 2 million years established by Geochron Laboratories.
However, rather than dealing with this issue and critically evaluating Austin's other procedures including the unacceptable mineral and glass impurities in his 'fractions'YECs loudly proclaim that the results are discrepant with the AD eruption.
They then proceed to assault the validity of the K-Ar method. Considering that the dacite probably erupted in AD, Austin should have known that at least some of the samples would have given dates that were younger than 2 million years old and that Geochron Laboratories could not have provided reliable answers.
Therefore, it's not surprising that some of Austin's dates, such as the result for the amphiboles, etc. Without properly referencing Bartelt et al. This is the old YEC 'only eyewitnesses can provide accurate histories' scam.
Obviously, Swenson, like many YECs, fails to realize that scientists can successfully unravel past events without witnessing them.
Forensic scientists frequently send criminals to prison without eyewitness testimony. To be exact, the recent hideous actions of the Washington DC area USA sniper s illustrate how unreliable eyewitnesses can be and
Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale important forensic science is in solving crimes and stopping killers. In contrast to Austin et al. Circular Reasoning or Reliable Tools? As mentioned above, we already know that Austin's application of the K-Ar method this dacite sample was flawed from the beginning.
Nevertheless, what are some possible causes of Austin's old dates? Of course, some YECs might argue that God, for whatever reason, simply zapped some 40Ar into the various minerals during the 'Creation Week' about 6, years ago. Obviously, this suggestion has absolutely no scientific support or merit. Such ideas are flights of Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale and not scientific hypotheses.
Not even Austin endorses these untestable claims in his essay. Other YECs might argue that some of the minerals in the dacite began to grow sometime over the past 6, years. However, without resorting to unproven miracles to speed up the decay rate of 40K, YECs still have the problem of explaining how
Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale of that 40Ar could form in only 6, years.
Using science, there are at least three hypotheses that may be purposed to explain why Austin obtained 'dates' ofto 2. Any or all of these hypotheses are possible. Austin strongly argues that steps were taken in his laboratory to protect the samples from contamination and that xenoliths foreign Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for salehypothesis 3 were removed from the samples before analysis. He also claims that microscopes were used to scan for 'foreign particles' xenocrysts?
Of course, he and his assistants may have missed many of the xenocrysts if they were Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale. Austin clearly ignores the possibility
Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale contamination in the mass spectrometer hypothesis 2 and the possibility that the phenocrysts in his samples may be much older than the AD eruption hypothesis 3.
Austin simply assumes that the first explanation is correct and then he proceeds to use the 'presence' of 'excess argon' Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale his samples to question the reliability of all K-Ar dates on other rocks and minerals.
This is the logical fallacy of composition Copi and Cohen, The validity of either hypothesis 2 or 3 would provide additional evidence that Austin's application of the K-Ar method is flawed and that he has failed to prove that the K-Ar method is universally invalid.
Figure 4 in Austin's essay shows a thin section photograph of a portion of the dacite. In the caption of Figure 4, Austin identifies the grains in the photograph as phenocrysts and microphenocrysts, which is probably generally correct. Phenocrysts and microscopic phenocrysts microphenocrysts are crystals that grow in a melt magma deep within the Earth.
In some cases, the entire melt solidifies before reaching the Earth's surface and an intrusive igneous rock develops Hyndman,p. Because intrusive rocks solidify deep within the Earth away from cool water and air, volcanic glass is absent and the grains may be fairly large that is, easily reaching Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale of one centimeter or Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale. In other cases, such as Austin's dacite, a partially crystallized melt erupts on the Earth's surface and produces a volcanic Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale, which may be a mixture of rapidly quenched volcanic glass and coarser phenocrysts Hyndman,p.
Although Austin and Swenson will not admit it, some of the grains in Figure 4 may be xenocrysts rather than phenocrysts.
In some cases, the magma may not be hot enough to melt or entirely dissolve the xenocrysts and they may survive after the melt cools. For even the best mineralogists and petrologists, xenocrysts may Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale difficult to distinguish from phenocrysts for example, Hyndman,p.
As clearly shown in Figure 4 of Austin's essaymany of the mineral grains are zoned. The zoning appears as Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale series of concentric rings of various shades of gray within the grains see the two obvious examples in the middle of Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale 4. Zoned crystals also may show Carlsbad twinning, which is typical of feldspars Perkins and Henke,Plate 10; Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale and Hurlbut,p.
In thin section and under crossed-polarized light, Carlsbad twinning has a 'half and half' appearance, where one half of the grain is darker than the other half Perkins and Henke,Plate As the sample is rotated on a microscope stage, one twin will darken as the other lightens in crossed-polarized light. A large grain with very noticeable Carlsbad twinning is located at the top of Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale 4.
Well-established laboratory studies Klein and Hurlbut,p. That is, as the magma cools, calcium-rich plagioclases crystallize first, which causes the remaining melt to become depleted in calcium and relatively enriched in sodium.
Once temperatures further decline, more sodium-rich plagioclase begins to solidify from the melt and may surround the calcium-rich grains.
This process produces zoning, where the older and more calcium-rich plagioclases are located in the core of the grains and the younger and more sodium-rich plagioclases occupy the rims. Because of their crystalline and chemical differences, the calcium-rich plagioclase cores have somewhat different optical properties than the sodium-rich rims, which produce the noticeable concentric zoning in the grains in Austin's thin section photograph.
Besides plagioclase feldspars, chemicals in cooling magmas deep within the Earth may organize into pyroxenes, amphiboles and a large variety of other minerals. In contrast, any melt that reaches the Earth's surface during an eruption will immediately quench into volcanic glass if it comes into contact with seawater or other surface waters. The quenching process freezes the atoms in place and prevents them from organizing into crystals. In the presence of air, the lava may cool slowly enough that some VERY small minerals may grow.
The highly volcanic glass matrix in Austin's Figure 4 appears black or 'isotropic' in crossed-polarized light. Unlike most minerals, which lighten and darken in crossed-polarized light as the microscope stage is rotated, volcanic glass always remains consistently dark under crossed-polarized light.
Furthermore, unlike disorganized and quickly chilled volcanic glass, well-zoned and developed feldspar crystals, such as those shown in Figure 4, don't form overnight. On the basis of the glass and mineral textures and elementary melt chemistry, we know that the zoned plagioclases and other relatively large and well-developed minerals in Austin's dacite must have taken more time to grow than the surrounding glass matrix. By using high-temperature ovens in undergraduate university laboratories or even crystal-growing kits and kitchen chemicals, a normally intelligent person can verify that coarse crystals take more time to grow than finer-grained materials.
Clearly, basic crystal chemistry and physics dictates that zoned and other relatively large phenocrysts grew deep within the Earth and existed before the glass matrix that rapidly formed during the eruption. Nevertheless, it is clear from Austin's essay that Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale failed to incorporate the obviously diverse ages of the
Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale and the volcanic glass into his explanation for the origin of the dacite.
Similarly, Swenson also fails to comprehend the indisputable history that is associated with the plagioclase zoning and to properly recognize Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale important age differences between the coarsest phenocrysts and the volcanic glass.
Obviously, if Austin wanted a sample that only represented the material that Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale during the eruption, he would have had to remove ALL of the plagioclase and other phenocrysts from the glass component. when phenocrysts as in Austin's Figure 4 and xenocrysts can be seen with an optical microscope, they can be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to effectively separate from Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale glass.
I've attempted to separate very fined-grained minerals from glass in coal ashes by using magnetic separation and hydrofluoric and other acids. Specifically, Austin admits that most of his fractions are impure when he includes the term 'etc. Furthermore, Austin's descriptions in the following statements clearly indicate that he FAILED to adequately separate the phenocrysts and possible xenocrysts Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale the volcanic glass.
Because Austin did NOT separate the plagioclase from the glass, we Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale expect this sample to contain a mixture of young glass, plagioclases with relatively old calcium-rich cores moderately old sodium-rich rims. Because Austin clearly understands the heterogeneous composition of this 'fraction', he should have known that a K-Ar date on this mess would be meaningless.
Again, the mineral textures, as well as the laws of chemistry and physics, dictate that the calcium-rich plagioclase cores grew at higher temperatures before the sodium-rich rims and that glasses only formed once the melt erupted at the surface.
Mafic microphenocrysts within these glassy particles were probably dominated by the strongly magnetic Fe-Ti oxide minerals. The microscopic examination of the 'heavy-magnetic concentrate' also revealed a trace quantity of iron fragments, obviously the magnetic contaminant
Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale introduced from the milling of the dacite in the iron mortar. No attempt was made to separate the hornblende from the Fe-Ti oxides, but further milling and use of heavy liquids should be considered.
At this point Austin admits that the iron mortar probably contaminated his sample. Although the contamination might have seriously affected any iron analyses, K and Ar analyses may not have been affected. The description of another one of Austin's 'fractions' indicates that it is also highly impure: These mafic microphenocrysts and fragments of mafic phenocrysts evidently increased the density of the attached Potassium argon dating volcanic ash for sale particles above the critical density of 2.
This sample also had recognizable hornblende, evidently not completely isolated by magnetic separation. Because it was composed of finer particles meshit contained far fewer mafic particles with attached glass fragments than DOME-IH. This preparation is the purest mineral concentrate.
When to tell her?Potassium-argon dating, method of determining the time of origin of rocks by age of some meteorites is as old as 4,,, years, and volcanic rocks as. The technique known as potassium-argon dating is used to date volcanic rock and ash, and thus establish dates for nearby fossils, like this hominid skull..
A-Z of Archaeology: 'K - K-Ar Dating' (Potassium - Argon Dating)
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How are the limitations of Geochron's equipment a 'rationalization'? Phenocrysts and microscopic phenocrysts microphenocrysts are crystals that grow in a melt magma deep within the Earth. The potassium is quantified by flame photometry or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Although Austin and Swenson will not admit it, some of the grains in Figure 4 may be xenocrysts rather than phenocrysts.
The calcium-potassium age method is seldom used, however, because of the great abundance of nonradiogenic calcium in minerals or rocks, which masks the presence of radiogenic calcium.
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