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Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart

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This Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart page is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being updated. CDC estimates that approximately 19 million new infections occur each year— almost half of them among young people 15 to 24 years of age 1.

In addition to the burden on youth, women are also severely affected.

What groups are most at...

Biological factors place Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart at greater risk than men for the severe health consequences of STDs. The two most commonly reported infectious diseases in America — chlamydia and gonorrhea — pose a particular risk to the health of women, as both can result in infertility if left untreated. Together, these diseases were reported in almost 1.

Both of these diseases, along with syphilis and herpes, have also been associated with increased HIV transmission, which is of particular concern among Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart who have sex with men MSM of all races and African-American men and women, where the HIV burden is now greatest.

Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart the preventable and persistent toll of STDs will require expanded access to prevention, treatment, and screening services for the diverse populations now at risk.

These data, which are useful for examining overall trends and trends among specific populations at risk, represent only a small proportion of the true national burden of STDs.

Many cases Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart notifiable STDs go undiagnosed, and some common viral infections, such as human papillomavirus and genital herpes, are not reported at all. Health Consequences of Chlamydia Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that can easily Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart cured with antibiotics, but usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed.

Untreated, it can cause severe health consequences for Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart. Up to 40 percent of females with untreated chlamydia Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart develop pelvic inflammatory disease PID — a condition, which can lead to such long-term complications as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

In addition, studies suggest that the presence of chlamydia infection increases the risk of HIV transmission. Chlamydia remains the most commonly reported disease in the United States. In1, chlamydia diagnoses were reported, up from 1, in The total represents the largest number of cases ever reported to CDC for any condition.

Even so, most chlamydia cases still go undiagnosed. CDC estimates that there are approximately 2. The national rate of reported chlamydia in was Increases in chlamydia rates are more likely a reflection of the continued expansion of screening and use of more sensitive tests, rather than an increase in the total burden of the disease in the United States.

Women, especially young and minority women, are hit hardest by chlamydia. The reported chlamydia case rate for females in was almost three times higher than Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart males Much of this difference reflects the fact that females are far more likely to be screened than males.

Young females 15 to 19 years of age had the highest chlamydia rate 3, Inblack females 15 to 19 years of age had the highest chlamydia rate of any group 9, The rate of reported chlamydia perblack females overall 1, Because chlamydia is most common Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart young women and is usually asymptomatic, CDC recommends annual chlamydia screening for all sexually active women under age 26, as well as older women with risk factors such as new or multiple sex partners.

While recent data suggest that chlamydia screening may be increasing, it is estimated that more than half of sexually active women under 26 were not screened within the last year.

Reducing the impact of this disease among women will also require reducing and treating chlamydia among males. Recent studies have also shown that many young women who have been diagnosed with chlamydia may become re-infected by male partners who have not been Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart or treated. Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States, withcases reported in Following a 74 percent decline in the rate of reported gonorrhea from throughoverall gonorrhea rates have remained relatively stable for the past decade, though the disease persists at too high a level.

Inthe overall gonorrhea rate was Like chlamydia, gonorrhea is substantially under-diagnosed and under-reported, and approximately twice as many new infections are estimated to occur each year as are reported. As in previous years, in the South had the highest gonorrhea rate among the four regions of the country cases perpopulation. Rates, while high in the South, have remained fairly stable.

While the impact is greatest in the South, public health officials have also been concerned in recent years about increases in gonorrhea rates in the West, with the Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart rate of gonorrhea rising Though the gonorrhea rate decreased slightly in the West from to from Between andthe rate in the Northeast declined Health Consequences of Gonorrhea While gonorrhea is easily cured, untreated cases can lead to serious health problems similar to those caused by chlamydia.

Among women, gonorrhea is a major cause of PID, which can lead to chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. In men, untreated gonorrhea can cause epididymitis, a painful infection in the tissue surrounding the testicles that can result in sterility. Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart addition, studies suggest that the presence of gonorrhea infection increases the likelihood of HIV transmission.

Drug resistance is an important concern in the treatment and prevention of gonorrhea.

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Syphilis...

In Aprilbased on data showing widespread drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, a leading class of antibiotics used to treat gonorrhea, CDC revised its gonorrhea treatment guidelines, no Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart recommending that this class of antibiotics be used to treat gonorrhea in the United Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart. With the loss of fluoroquinolones, recommended gonorrhea treatments are limited to a single class of antibiotics, cephalosporins.

However, over the past seven years, the syphilis rate in the United States has been increasing. Additionally, the disparity between male Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart female case rates has grown consistently. Inthe syphilis rate for females increased 10 percent from 1. This increase has occurred largely among black females, in whom rates rose Additionally, the rate of congenital syphilis i. Increases in congenital syphilis have historically followed increases among women.

To combat the increases in syphilis among MSM during the last decade, CDC has partnered with health departments and community groups in the cities hardest hit to Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart transmitted diseases comparison chart new strategies for this population.

These approaches range from new Internet-based strategies for notifying sexual partners to education campaigns targeted to high-risk populations and health care providers. As CDC continues to evaluate and work to replicate the most effective approaches to reducing this burden, it is clear that regular screening of MSM, especially HIV-positive MSM, remains one of the most critical steps toward preventing the spread of syphilis.

Information, statistics, and treatment guidelines...

CDC also recommends that all pregnant women be screened for Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart at the first prenatal visit. This is critical for protecting infants from the serious complications associated with congenital syphilis. Blacks represent only 12 percent of the total U.

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Similarly, disparities among Hispanics, though less severe, also exist for chlamydia. While Hispanics account for 15 percent of the U.

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

These disparities may be, in part, because racial and ethnic Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart are more likely to seek care in public health clinics that report Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart more completely than private providers. However, this reporting bias does not fully explain these Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart. Socioeconomic barriers to quality healthcare and Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart transmitted diseases comparison chart prevention and treatment services have likely contributed to a higher prevalence and incidence of STDs Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart racial and ethnic minorities.

Ensuring that minority communities have access to prevention, screening, treatment and partner services needed to improve health is critical to addressing these disparities.

Inthe rate of chlamydia among blacks was more than eight times higher than the rate among whites 1, Racial disparities in gonorrhea rates are the most severe of all reportable STDs. The gonorrhea rate among blacks was 19 times greater than that of whites in Inthere were declines in gonorrhea rates among all racial and ethnic groups, except blacks, among whom the gonorrhea rate increased by 1.

Inthe syphilis rate among blacks was seven Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart higher than that of whites While this represents a substantial decline fromwhen the rate among blacks was 29 times greater than among Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart, significant disparities remain. Between andthe rate among blacks increased 25 percent from By comparison, the rate among black females increased To reduce the toll of STDs and protect the health of millions of Americans, expanded prevention efforts are urgently needed.

In addition to the threat of infertility, increased risk of HIV acquisition and other health risks, STDs have a substantial economic impact. CDC supports a comprehensive approach to STD prevention that includes expanded screening, treatment, and behavioral interventions, with Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart focus on reducing racial disparities.

In addition to recommending annual chlamydia screening for all sexually active women under 26 years of age, CDC also supports U. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation to Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart high-risk, sexually active women Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart gonorrhea.

To further progress against chlamydia, CDC, the Partnership for Prevention and eight other national organizations, established the National Chlamydia Coalition. The partnership Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart comprised of non-profit Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart, health care professional associations, advocacy groups, health insurers, and government representatives working together to reduce the rates of chlamydia and its harmful effects among sexually active adolescent and young adults, Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart raise awareness of the importance of chlamydia screening to sexual health, and to Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart improve adherence to recommended screening guidelines.

Eliminating syphilis as a Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart threat in the United States will also require an increased commitment to education, testing, and treatment in all populations affected. While the disease was on the verge of elimination in the late s, shifts in disease transmission have since resulted in substantial new prevention challenges.

While elimination efforts were originally targeted to heterosexuals in the geographic areas Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart syphilis was concentrated, increases in syphilis among MSM across the country have since required that limited resources be shifted to combat two distinct syphilis epidemics. As a result, declines in reported syphilis cases in some areas and populations continue to be offset by syphilis increases in others.

Ultimately, successful elimination of this disease will require intensified efforts at the federal, state, and local levels to reach the diverse and expanded populations now at risk. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart ;36 1: Screening for Chlamydia — A Key to the prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease.

New England Journal of Medicine ; From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: Sexually Transmitted Infections ; Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease by screening for cervical chlamydial infection. The State of Health Care Quality Chlamydia screening in a health plan before and after a national performance measure introduction.

Determinants of persistent and recurrent chlamydia trachomatis infection in young women: Sexually transmitted diseases comparison chart Transmitted Diseases ;28 2: Incidence and repeat infection rates of chlamydia trachomatis among male and female patients in an STD clinic: Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; 29 2:

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