A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or center also spelled shopping centrein which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit.
A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct which is usually distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single Europe asia dating mall and are in open air. However, many smaller arcades have Europe asia dating mall demolished, replaced with large Europe asia dating mall or "malls", often accessible by vehicle.
Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used, especially in EuropeAustraliaand South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. In North America, Gulf countriesand India, the Europe asia dating mall shopping mall is usually applied to enclosed retail structures and is generally abbreviated to simply mallwhile shopping centre usually refers to open-air retail complexes; both types of facilities usually have large parking lots, face major traffic arterials, and have few pedestrian connections to surrounding neighbourhoods.
In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are commonly referred to as shopping centres. In North Americamall is generally used to refer to a large shopping area usually composed of a single building which contains multiple shops, usually "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more often used, especially in the United Kingdomto refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street, often covered or between closely spaced buildings see town centre.
The majority of British shopping centres are located
Europe asia dating mall city centres, usually found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open Europe asia dating mall shopping streets. These centres were built in the s and s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more.
Europe asia dating mall developments in the UK are now focused on retail parkswhich consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from
Europe asia dating mall. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success.
Westfield Stratford Cityin Stratford Londonis the largest shopping centre in Europe with over shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city
Europe asia dating mall center in Europe.
Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Romein forums where shopping markets were located.
Numerous Europe asia dating mall covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Europe asia dating mall in DamascusSyriamight also be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall.
The kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar also has a lengthy history. The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is likely to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation
Europe asia dating mall traders on various levels.
Different rows specialized in different goods, such as 'Bakers Row' or 'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. The Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in The Arcade in Providence, Rhode Island introduced the retail arcade concept to the United States in and is arguably the oldest "shopping mall" in the country.
Other large cities created arcades and shopping centers in the late century and early 20th century, including the Cleveland Arcadeand Moscow 's GUMwhich opened in When the Cleveland Arcade Europe asia dating mall init was among the first indoor Europe asia dating mall arcades in the US, and like its European counterparts, was an architectural triumph.
Two sides of the arcade had 1, panes of glass set in iron framing and is a prime example of Victorian architecture. Sydney's Queen Victoria Markets Building, opened inwas also an ambitious architectural project. In the midth century, with the rise of the suburb and automobile culture in the United States, a new
Europe asia dating mall of shopping center was created away from downtown. From early on, the design tended to be inward-facing, with malls following theories of how customers could best be enticed in a
Europe asia dating mall environment.
Similar, the concept of a mall having one or more "
Europe asia dating mall stores " or " big box stores " was pioneered early, with individual stores or smaller-scale chain stores intended to benefit from the shoppers attracted by the
Europe asia Europe asia dating mall mall stores. A second stimulus came from legislation inwhich allowed investors to band together in REITs Real Estate Investment Trusts to avoid corporate income taxes.
The laws helped to shape the familiar exurban landscape of malls, motels, and fast food chains. In the s in Canada, the Ontario government created the Ontario Downtown Renewal Programme, which helped finance building of several downtown malls across Ontario such as Eaton Centre.
The program was created to reverse the tide of small business leaving downtowns for larger sites surrounding the city. In the first of shopping mall private investment hit an all-time low under 0. The early shopping center in the United States took shape at the Grandview Avenue Center the "Bank Block" in Grandview Heights, Ohio inthe first regional shopping center in America that integrated parking into the design.
This general plan by Don Monroe Casto Sr. Three more suburban shopping centers were completed in It was situated in the southern suburbs of Chicago, Illinois.
Cameron Village contained a shopping center as part of a planned community in what was then the outskirts of Raleigh, NC. In Aprilthe suburban shopping mall Europe asia dating mall into being with the opening of Seattle's Northgate Center now known as Northgate Mall. Open-air-type malls were also built in Canada and Australia. The fully enclosed shopping mall did not appear until the mids. Valley Fair a number of modern features including a large parking anchor stores, and restaurants.
The idea of Europe asia dating mall regionally-sized, fully enclosed shopping complex was pioneered in by the Austrian-born architect and American immigrant Victor Gruen. For pioneering the soon-to-be enormously popular mall concept in this form, Gruen has been called the "most Europe asia dating mall architect of the twentieth century" by Malcolm Gladwell.
The center, which opened with an open-air
Europe asia dating mall inwas enclosed in Ralph Erskine was named Shopping ; the region now claims the highest shopping center density in Europe.
The first fully enclosed shopping mall in
Europe asia dating mall was Europe asia dating mall Square. It was designed for Eaton's by John Graham, Jr. After several renovations, it remains open today as Citi Plaza. This formula enclosed space with stores attached, away from downtown, and only by automobile became a popular way to build retail across the world.
Gruen himself came to abhor this effect of his new design; he decried the creation of enormous "land wasting seas of parking" and the spread of suburban sprawl.
In the UKChrisp Street Market was the first pedestrian shopping area built with a road at the shop fronts. The mall-type shopping precinct in Great Britain was built in the downtown area of Birmingham. A notable example is the Halton Lea Shopping Centre originally known as Shopping City in Runcorn, which opened in and was conceived as the center point for the new town 's development.
Another early example is the Brent Cross Britain's first out-of-town shopping mall and Europe asia dating mall on the northern outskirts of Londonwhich was opened in March In the United States, developers such as A. Alfred Taubman of Taubman Centers extended the concept further inwith terrazzo tiles at the Mall at Short Europe asia dating mall in New Jerseyindoor fountains, and two levels allowing a shopper to make a circuit of all the stores.
Taubman believed carpeting Europe asia dating Europe asia dating mall friction, slowing down customers, so it was removed. Fading daylight through glass panels was supplemented by gradually increased electric lighting, making it seem like the afternoon was lasting longer, which encouraged shoppers to linger. The size of shopping centers and malls continued to increase throughout the twentieth and into the twenty-first centuries.
Earl Puckett confidently announced The Outlets at Bergen Town Center as the largest of ten proposed centers, stating that there were 25 cities that could support such centers and that no more
Europe asia dating mall 50 malls of this type would ever Europe asia dating mall built nationwide.
The most visited shopping mall in the world and largest mall in the United States is the Mall of America Europe asia dating mall, located near the Twin Cities in Bloomington, Minnesota. Philippines has the most number of shopping malls in the top largest shopping malls in the world with The International Council of Shopping Centers classifies shopping malls into eight basic types: Neighborhood centers are small-scale malls serving the local neighborhood.
They typically have a supermarket or a drugstore as an anchor, and are commonly arranged in a strip mall format. Community malls are larger than neighborhood centers, and offer a wider range of goods. They usually feature two anchor stores which are larger than that of a neighborhood center's, e. They may also follow a strip configuration, or may be L- or U-shaped.
A regional mall is, per the International Council of Shopping Centers, in the United States, a shopping mall which is designed to service a larger area than a conventional shopping mall. Given their wider service area, these malls tend to have higher-end stores that need a larger area in order for their services to be profitable but may have discount department stores.
Regional malls are also found as tourist attractions in vacation areas. Fashion or specialty centers feature apparel shops and boutiques and cater to customers with higher incomes. Power centers are large shopping centers that almost exclusively feature several big-box retailers as their anchors. Theme or festival centers have distinct unifying themes that are followed by their individual shops as well as their architecture.
They are usually located in urban areas and cater to tourists. An outlet mall or outlet center is a type of shopping mall in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own stores.
Other Europe asia dating mall Europe asia dating mall outlet malls are operated by retailers selling returned goods and discontinued products, often at heavily reduced prices. Outlet stores were found as early asbut the first multi-store outlet mall, Vanity Fair in Reading, PA did not open until Belz Enterprises opened the first enclosed factory outlet mall inin Lakeland, TNa suburb of Memphis. A common feature of shopping malls is a food court: When the shopping mall format was developed by Victor Gruen in the mids, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, and to retail traffic that would result in visits to Europe asia dating mall smaller stores in the mall as well.
These larger stores are termed anchor store or draw tenant. In physical configuration, anchor stores are normally located as far from each other as possible to maximize the Europe asia dating Europe asia dating mall of traffic from one anchor to another. Frequently, a shopping mall or shopping center will have satellite buildings located either on the same
Europe asia dating mall of land or on one abutting it, on which will be located stand-alone stores, which may or may not be legally connected to the central Europe asia dating mall through contract or ownership.
These stores may have their own parking lots, or their lots may interconnect with those of the mall or center.
In the United in the mids, malls were still being constructed at a rate of a year. Ina year before the Great Recessionno new malls were built in America, for the first time in 50 years.
Europe asia dating mall recent years, the number of dead malls increased significantly in Europe asia dating mall early twenty first century because the economic health of malls across the United States has been in decline, with high Europe asia dating mall rates in Europe asia dating mall malls.
Some real estate experts say the "fundamental problem" is a glut of malls in many parts of the country creating a market that is "extremely over-retailed". In parts of Canada, it is now rare for new shopping malls to
Europe asia dating mall built. Outdoor outlet malls or big box shopping areas known as power centers are now favored, although the traditional enclosed shopping mall is still in demand by those seeking weather-protected, all-under-one-roof shopping.
In Russiaon the other hand, as of [update] a large number of new malls had been built Europe asia dating mall major cities, notably the MEGA malls such as Mega Belaya Dacha mall near Moscow.
In large part they were financed by international investors and were popular with shoppers from the
Europe asia dating mall middle class. In the United States, owners are making drastic moves to convert struggling malls.