The city was located in the extreme southeast of the Mesoamerican cultural region, on the with the Isthmo-Colombian cultural region, and was almost surrounded by Maya peoples. The city developed a distinctive sculptural style Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating the tradition of the lowland Maya, perhaps to emphasize Maya ethnicity of the city's rulers.
The city has a historical record that spans the greater part of the Classic period and has been reconstructed in detail by archaeologists and epigraphers. In the Early Classic, the inhabitants flattened the valley floor and undertook construction projects to protect the architecture of the city from the effects of flooding. This decrease in population took over four centuries to actually show signs of collapse, showing the stability of this site even after the fall of the ruling dynasties and royal families.
The city was refounded by K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'establishing it as the capital of a new Maya kingdom. Both names are likely to refer to the same individual originally from Tikal.
These strong links with both the Maya and Central Mexican cultures suggest that he was at least a Mexicanized Maya or possibly even from Teotihuacan. Several monuments have survived that were dedicated by K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' and by his heir.
In a tomb underneath the talud-tablero Hunal temple was discovered by a team of archaeologists led by Robert Sharer and David Sedat. Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating tomb contained the skeleton of
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating elderly man with rich offerings and evidence of battle wounds.
The remains have been identified as those of K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' due to their location underneath sequence of seven buildings erected in his honor. Popol Hol
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating not the original name of Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating king but rather a nickname based on the appearance of his Teotihuacan-linked name glyph.
His greatest construction activity was in the area of his father's palace, now underlying Structure 10L, which he demolished after entombing his father there. He then built three successive buildings on top of the tomb in rapid succession. Very little is known about Rulers 3 to 6 in the dynastic succession, although it is known from a fragment of a broken monument reused as construction fill in a later building that one of them was a son of Popol Hol.
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating rebuilt temple 10L in the Acropolis, erecting a stela there and a hieroglyphic step at its base. Although this king is also mentioned on a few other fragments of sculpture, no dates accompany his name. B'alam Nehn often referred to as Waterlily Jaguar was first king to actually record his position in the dynastic succession, declaring that he was seventh in Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating from K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'.
B'alam Nehn undertook major construction projects in the Acropolis, building over an early palace with a number of important structures. The 10th is nicknamed Moon Jaguar by Mayanists. The Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating surviving stelae of K'ak' Chan Yopaat contain long, hard-to-decipher hieroglyphic texts and are the oldest monuments at the site to survive without being either broken or buried. Smoke Imix was crowned 16 days after the death of K'ak' Chan Yopaat.
These monuments all celebrated a k'atun -ending. He also erected a stela at the Santa Rita site 12 kilometers 7. is thought that he was trying to
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating his authority throughout the whole Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating after the end of some earlier restriction to his freedom to rule as he wished.
He remodelled the ballcourt, then demolished it and built a new one in its place. In the Late Classic, alliance with Calakmul was frequently associated with the promise of military support. The alliance instead seems to have been one of mutual advantage: Five life-size statues of seated rulers were installed seated upon the stairway. Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat was the next ruler, 16th in the dynasty founded by K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo', although he appears not to have been a direct descendent Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating his predecessor.
Texts make an obscure reference to Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating father but his mother was a noblewoman from distant Palenque in Mexico. The long line of kings at the once great city had come to an end.
Before the end, even the nobility had been struck by disease, perhaps because
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating among the malnourished masses spread to the elite. With the end of political
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating at the city the population collapsed to Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating fraction of what it had been at its height. However, the population continued to persist and even flourish between the years and AD, and then gradually declined soon thereafter.
Owens and George Byron Gordon. A tomb was looted in Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating it was being excavated by archaeologists.
The site has a large court for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame. The site is divided into various groups, with the Main Group and the Cemetery Group in the site core linked by a sacbe to the Sepulturas Group to the northeast.
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating main features are the Acropolis, which is a raised royal complex on the south side, and a group of smaller structures and linked plazas to the north, including the Hieroglyphic Stairway and the ballcourt.
The Monument Plaza contains the greatest concentration of sculpted monuments at the site. It consists of two plazas that have been named the West Court and the East Court. They are both enclosed by elevated structures. Structure 10L-4 is a platform with four stairways situated by the
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating Plaza.
Structure 10L is on the west side of the Acropolis. It encloses the south side of the Court of the Stairway and is accessed from it by a wide monumental stairway.
Structure 10L was built on top of several earlier structures, one
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating which probably contains the tomb of his predecessor K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil.
A small tunnel descends into the interior of the structure, possibly to the tomb, but it has not yet been excavated by archaeologists. On Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating of this he placed a two-storey superstructure with a sculpted roof depicting the mythological cosmos.
At each of its northern corners was a large sculpted Pawatun a group of deities that supported the heavens. This superstructure had four doorways with panels of hieroglyphs sculpted directly onto the walls of the building. A bench inside
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating structure, removed by Maudslay in the nineteenth century and now in the British Museum 's collection, once depicted the king's accession to the throne, overseen by deities and ancestors.
Structure 10L Temple 16 is a temple pyramid that is the highest part of the Acropolis. It is located between the East and West Courts at the heart of the ancient city. The temple was placed on top of the original palace and tomb of the king. It is the final version of a number of temples built Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating top of each other, as was common practice in Mesoamerica.
king was buried in a vaulted crypt that cut into the floor of the Hunal phase of the building, accompanied by rich offerings of jade.
K'inich Popol Hol, son of the founder, demolished the palace of his father and built a platform on top of his tomb, named Yehnal by archaeologists. This platform was encased within another much larger Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating within a decade of its construction. This larger platform has been named Margarita and had stucco panels flanking its access stairway that Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating entwined images of quetzals and macaws, which both form a part of K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo's name.
The Margarita phase contained a tomb with the richly accompanied burial of an elderly woman nicknamed the "Lady in Red". The upper chamber of the Margarita phase temple was converted to receive offerings and the unusual Xukpi stone, a dedicatory monument used in one of the earlier phases, was reused in this later phase.
One of the best preserved phases of Temple 16 is the Rosalila, built over the remains of five previous versions of the temple. Archaeologist Ricardo Agurcia discovered the almost intact shrine while tunneling underneath the final version of the temple. Rosalila is notable for its excellent state of preservation, including the entire building from the base platform up to the roof combincluding its highly elaborate painted stucco decoration.
Rosalila features K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' placed at the centre of a mythological tableau, combining the founder of the dynasty with the sky deity Itzamna in avian form.
The mythological imagery also includes anthropomorphic mountains, skeletons and crocodiles. Vents in the exterior were designed so smoke from incense being burned inside the shrine would interact with the stucco sculpture of the Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating. The temple had a hieroglyphic stone step with a dedicatory inscription. An offering was made as part of the rites to terminate the old phase and included a collection of eccentric flints worked into the profiles of humans and gods, which were wrapped blue-dyed
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating. Stairs on the south side of the structure lead down to a vaulted tomb that was looted in times and was probably that of Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat.
Structure 10L is a large building on the north side of the East Court, in the Acropolis, and faces onto it. It dates to the reign of Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil and is the best preserved of the buildings from his rule.
The of the building has an interior doorway with an elaborate sculpted frame and decorated with masks
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating the mountain god Witz. The building symbolically represents the mountain where maize was created. Structure 10L is in the East Court of the Acropolis. It covers a rich royal tomb nicknamed Sub-Jaguar by archaeologists.
Structure 10L is a temple that projects northwards from the Acropolis and is immediately to the north of Structure 10L This phase of the structure was more Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating and was decorated with stucco. Set under the building was the Motmot capstone, covering a tomb with the unusual Teotihuacan-style burial Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating a woman, accompanied by a wide variety of offerings that included animal bones, mercuryjade and quartzalong with three severed human heads, all of which were male.
Smoke Imix demolished the Papagayo phase and ritually interred the broken remains of its sculpted monuments, accompanied by stone macaw heads from an early Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating of the ballcourt. It in turn was developed into the Chorcha pyramid with the addition of a long superstructure with seven doorways at the front and back.
Before a new building was built over the top, the upper sanctuary was demolished and a tomb was inserted into the floor and covered with 11 large stone slabs. The tomb contained the remains of an adult male and a sacrificed child. The adult's badly decayed skeleton was wrapped in a mat and accompanied by offerings of fine jadeincluding ear ornaments and Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating necklace of sculpted figurines.
The Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating was accompanied by offerings of 44 ceramic vessels, jaguar pelts, spondylus shells, 10 paintpots and one or more hieroglyphic books, now decayed. There were also 12 ceramic incense burners with lids modeled into human figurines, thought to represent Smoke Imix and his 11 dynastic predecessors.
The Chorcha building was dedicated
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating the long-lived 7th-century king Smoke Imix and it is therefore likely that the remains interred in the building are his.
The new phase bore the first version of the Hieroglyphic Stairway, which contains a lengthy dynastic history. He removed the Hieroglyphic Stairway from the earlier building and reinstalled it into his own version, while doubling the length of its text and adding five life-size statues of rulers dressed Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating the garb of Teotihuacano warriors, each seated on a step of the stairway.
The summit shrine of the temple bore a hieroglyphic text composed of full-figure hieroglyphs, each placed beside a similar glyph in faux-Mexican style, giving the appearance of a bilingual text. The Hieroglyphic Stairway climbs the west side of Structure 10L figures are believed to represent the most important rulers in the dynastic history of the site.
The Ballcourt is immediately north of the Court of the Hieroglyphic Stairway and is to the south of the Monument Plaza. It was dedicated the great macaw deity and the buildings flanking the playing area carried 16 mosaic sculptures of the birds.
The Sepulturas Group consists of a number of restored structures, mostly elite residences that feature stone benches, some of which have carved decorations, and a number of tombs. The group has a long occupational history,
Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating one house having been dated as far back as the Costumbres mesoamericanas yahoo dating Preclassic.
By the Middle Preclassic, large platforms were being built from cobbles and several rich burials were made.