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The Abathomphalus mayaroensis zone Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating the upper Maastrichtian corresponds to the taxon range interval of the nominate species.
We have identified the hantkeninoides subzone. This species is present and associated with Pseudoguembelina hariaensis at the Tethyan realm. However, this species is absent at Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating middle latitude of the Atlantic realm Bidart section, SW France. The Pseudoguembelina hariaensis species had larger paleogeographic spread, as it was present in both the Tethys and the Atlantic paleoceans.
It is more relevant to be considered as the biomarker of a nominate uppermost Maastrichtian subzone instead of Plummerita hantkeninoides. The
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating stage is characterized by the Gt.
They would be controlled by the sedimentary basin morphology. These extinctions affecting many other biological groups of vertebrates and induced a major crisis considered as the
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating severe and catastrophic biological event in the history of our planet.
This crisis documented in many research on the foraminifers groups [ 4 — 6 ], among others became more accurate until the specialists began to use the high resolution Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating analyses [ 7 — 16 ], among others.
Some authors consider that the lower Danian assemblages include reworked specimens of Maastrichtian taxa [ 17 — 19 ], whereas others have suggested that at least a substantial part of the latest Maastrichtian species survived into the earliest Danian [ 2021 ].
Consistent debates on the upper Maastrichtian-lower Danian interval based on planktic foraminiferal zonations and biochronology for the middle and lower latitudes are documented [ 781012 — 1624 — 26 ], among others. In general, the authors are disagreeing about the extinct species at the upper Maastrichtian Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating about the appeared species at the lower Danian.
Consequently many species are proposed; other species are emended or discussed. The planktic foraminiferal zonations and biochronology of the upper Maastrichtian-lower Danian
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating the middle and lower latitudes are still hotly debated.
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating the Abathomphalus mayaroensis zone is used as a standard subdivision in the upper Maastrichtian, the proposed Danian zonation is still highly controversial.
These sections are among the best documented and most complete and continuous sections known to date. In this paper, based on high-resolution biostratigraphy, we attempt to check if these sections are complete, to
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating our contribution to the general discussion on the standard biozonation of the uppermost Maastrichtian and Danian stratigraphic interval [ Foraminiferal biostratigraphy Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating — 10161724 — 2629 — 32 ] to correlate between these different standard biozones and subzones.
It can be reached by taking the exit towards the town of Tajerouine and following the road which leads to Hammam Mellegue between a small village and a recent artificial lake. The precise coordinates were measured with a GPS; Lambert coordinates calibrated from Carthago point: Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating, this GSSP was Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating officially published in a prestigious stratigraphical journal of Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating distribution.
Only a short note was published in Episodes Cowie et al. At the same time, the present status of the site has been documented by a series of photographs. Finally, it was officially published, see Molina et al.
In order to detail the Cretaceous-Paleogene K-Pg transition Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating at the El Kef stratotype section, 41 samples are picked across The samples D, D, D, and D of lower Danian interval are very rich in corals, brachiopods, and bivalve of millimetric size [ 15 ].
In these authors confirmed, with the collaboration of Rocchia and Robin, that the rust-colored layer is rich in Ir and Ni-rich spinel crystals.
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating high-resolution sampling was carried out by Karoui-Yaakoub in her doctoral thesis. The ostracods were studied by Said-Benzarti [ 35 ] and the nannofossils Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating Gardin [
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating ].
The section was also studied Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating detail by Zaghbib-Turki et al. Furthermore, Karoui-Yaakoub et Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating. The planktic foraminifera at this section were studied in detail by Gallala [ 15 ].
This upper part is rich in corals, brachiopods, and bivalves of millimetric size Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating EN and EN [ 15 ] Figure 4. InAbtahi initially studied the foraminifera in his
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating thesis.
Their study was published one month before the seminal paper by Alvarez et al. The red rusty Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating also contains altered microtektites [ 45 ] as well as anomalous concentrations in Co, Cr, Ni, As, Sb,
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating Se [ 46 ].
Many other mineralogical and geochemical analyses were accomplished finding overwhelming meteoritic impact evidence [ 47 — 57 ]. The planktic foraminifera at this section were
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating in detail by Canudo Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating al. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating temporary Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating turnover, consisting of the reorganization
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating the benthic foraminiferal community structure, but with no mass extinction in the small benthic foraminifera, has been reported from this section [ 5961 ].
The two Betic sections are similar, although the Caravaca sedimentation rate in the lower Danian Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating around twice that of Agost. The planktic foraminifera Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating this section were studied in detail by Gallala [ 15 ]; Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating samples are picked across 2.
The Agost section was first described by Leclerc [ 63 ], who documented the planktonic Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating faunas and argued that the sedimentation was essentially continuous from Santonian to Eocene. Since then, the Agost section has been studied by numerous authors e. The benthic was studied by Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating et al. The Maastrichtian deposits consist of pelagic gray massive marls with interbedded calcareous marls; the latter are rare or absent in the uppermost Maastrichtian.
These marly deposits which contain abundant ostracodes and foraminifera belong to the upper part of the Quipar-Jorquera Formation, originally described by van Veen [ 70 ]. Twenty-nine samples are picked, in this work, Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating 3. The Bidart section is located in southwestern France, within the
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating Basin between Hendaye and Biarritz villages, on the Bidart beach named Pavillon Royal or Caseville, where the upper Cretaceous-Eocene outcrops are well exposed on the beach of Bidart
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating 8.
The well-exposed Cretaceous-Paleogene nearby
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating Bidart beach has interested many authors.
It has been also studied by numerous authors from points of view such as stable isotope analysis [ 75 — 77 ], Ir content [ 4678 ], biostratigraphy e. Its macrofaunal content ammonites and inoceramids studied Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating Ward [ 89 ] and Ward and Kennedy [ 90 ]. The Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating Maastrichtian deposits at the Bidart section consist of metric thick marls and clayey limestones alternations abundant Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating and scarce echinoids.
The overlying rocks consist of brownish claystone, thin laminated dark gray marls, and pink Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating white limestones. Into these limestones, a mass flow deposits with a clear erosive basal surface and breccia occur between 1. Consequently, across the lowermost Danian, the clays dominate over the carbonates. The preservation of the
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating foraminifers of the studied sections is generally Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating. All the biozones and subzones are easily recognized by their biomarkers Figure Across the K-Pg transition, four standard biozones are recognized.
Using high-resolution sampling, these zones are detailed and subdivided in subzones. As defined by Bolli [ 5 ], this biozone corresponds to the taxon range interval of the nominate species. It has been recognized by many authors in the Tethyan area Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating elsewhere [ 791013 — 1517293191 — 98 ]. This biomarker remains omnipresent up to the top of the Maastrichtian. We have identified the Plummerita hantkeninoides subzone which is
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating most and persistent species across the uppermost Maastrichtian.
This species is absent at middle latitudes: Nevertheless, Keller [ 99 ] working on the high-latitude K-Pg transition deposits sites C, B, and C noted the absence of Plummerita hantkeninoides. Consequently, if this species was considered absent at the middle- and high-latitude areas, it be restricted to low latitudes [ 13 — 15 ]. This zone was initially Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating by Smit [ 741 ]. In this paper, following Arenillas et al.
Its magnetostratigraphy position is in Chron C29r, and its duration is A or between We
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating the Gt.
It corresponds to the biostratigraphical interval characterized by the total range of the nominate taxon. It corresponds to the later part of Chron C29r. Its estimate age is between We subdivide Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating Pv. The oldest one i. In this paper, we emend the youngest one i. Initially, Leonov and Alimarina [ ] proposed Globigerina pseudobulloides-G. It corresponds to the interval between the LAD of Pv.
It differs slightly from the Parasubbotina pseudobulloides proposed by Molina et al. Following Arenillas et al. These coeval sections may be compared with their neighbours in the Atlantic and Tethyan realms and may be considered auxiliary sections Figure At the Tethys and Atlantic realms, Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating the biozones and subzones are easily recognized by their biomarkers
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating At the Tethyan realmPlummerita hantkeninoidescommonly indicative of the uppermost Maastrichtian, is present, and it is associated to Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating hariaensis.
However, Plummerita hantkeninoides is Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating at the Bidart and Zumaya sections located in middle latitudes of the Atlantic realm. The Atlantic realm contains diverse planktonic foraminifers; among them is Pseudoguembelina hariaensis Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating had a larger paleogeographical distribution being recorded both in Tethys and the Atlantic paleoceans.
It is more Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating to considered as the marker species of the nominate uppermost Maastrichtian subzone instead of Plummerita hantkeninoides Figure Consequently, we replaced Plummerita hantkeninoides by Pseudoguembelina hariaensis as index species. This is recorded both in the Tethys and Atlantic realm; it indicates the uppermost Maastrichtian subzone. At the El Kef section, the Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina zone spans 5.
This zone is subdivided into the Parvularugoglobigerina sabina Figure and Eoglobigerina simplicissima subzones Figures 6 and All the planktic foraminiferal zones and subzones, characterizing the uppermost Maastrichtian-lower Danian interval, are well defined Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating the mayaroensis zone ended by Pseudoguembelina hariaensis subzone indicating the uppermost Maastrichtianthe cretacea zone subdivided into Hedbergella holmdelensis and Parvularugoglobigerina longiapertura subzonesthe Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina zone subdivided into Parvularugoglobigerina sabina and Eoglobigerina simplicissima Subzonesand the Ps.
These zones and subzones are easily recognized by their well preserved biomarkers. Despite its reduced thickness, it is relatively complete,
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy dating suggested by the FAD of Pv. Although it is thinner than in El Kef 5. In the Bidart section, only the lower part of the S. Although they are much less expanded than the El Kef stratotype section, they may be very useful auxiliary sections of the boundary interval for the Tethyan and the Atlantic realms.
The author is very grateful to the native of English Richard Stephenson for the improvements of the final version of their paper.